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DLCL Structure of Matter

Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR)

Centered on GSI, an international structure named FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research) will evolve. FAIR will support a wide variety of science cases: extreme states of matter using heavy ions (CBM), nuclear structure- and astrophysics (NUSTAR), hadron physics with antiprotons (PANDA), atomic and plasma physics as well as biological and material sciences (APPA). The high beam intensities at FAIR constitute various challenges; especially also in collaborative computing. The first beam is expected to be in 2018.
At FAIR a novel triggerless detector read-out will be implemented, without conventional first-level hardware triggers, relying exclusively on software based event filters. So at FAIR the classical separation between data acquisition, trigger, and off-line processing is merging into a single, hierarchical data processing system, handling an initial data stream exceeding 1 TB/sec.
FAIR will make use of a novel modular data processing paradigm using multi-site load balancing data centers. Several sites in the surrounding of GSI will be connected with a high-speed Metropolitan Area Network via fibre link allowing the off-loading of processing between the sites. Multi-site user access and corresponding security aspects are currently being investigated within the EU project CRISP. That combined tier-0/1 system will be integrated in an international Grid/Cloud infrastructure.
FAIRGrid uses the AliEn middleware, as developed by the ALICE experiment. The grid monitoring and data supervision are done via MonALISA. The basis of the software for simulation, reconstruction, and data analysis is FairRoot. In order to meet peak demands for computing, it may be necessary to offload some of the computing tasks to public or community clouds.
The exact amount of computing, storage and archiving required for FAIR depends on many factors but is certainly beyond the capacity of a single computer center. The required resources are dominated by CBM and PANDA. Current estimates for the sum of all experiments are 200.000 cores and 30 PB storage space for the first year of data taking.

European XFEL


At Hamburg a new research facility for a free electron laser - the European XFEL - is being build. The worldwide unique source of X-rays will provide ultrashort X-ray flashes (27000 times per second) with a brilliance billion times higher than conventional X-ray sources. The radiation has properties similar to LASER light. The XFEL will start operating in 2015. At present twelve countries particiapate in this international project with DESY being the main shareholder.
The XFEL accelerates bunches of electrons to high energies. These electrons are then passed through specially arranged magnets, so-called undulators, producing the X-ray flashes.
Many research fields will benefit from this new radiation source. It allows to resolve atomic details of viruses, to decipher the molecular composition of cells, to film chemical reactions, or to study processes such as those occuring deep inside planets.


The PETRA III storage ring started operating in 2009 and is the worldwide most brilliant storage-ring based X-ray radiation source. It features 14 experimental stations with up to 30 instruments. Petra III provides excellent oportunities in the fields of material research and molecular biology. Its tightly collimated beam with short wavelength allows to investigate small samples and to resolve for example the complex structure of rebosomes.